Next Generation Regenerative Cell Therapy Exosomes
Dec 28, 2018 11:47AM
By Dr. Amar Talati
Orthomolecular Nutrition and Wellness Center has been utilizing regenerative medicine therapies going on 20 years, including the intravenous laser and micronutrient therapy, platelet rich plasma and stem cell therapies. Always at the forefront, they now introduce the latest in revolutionary regenerative medicine—Exosome Therapy.
What are exosomes? Exosomes are small biological membrane vesicles that measure 30 to 100nm in diameter. They are involved in a wide array of biological activities such as cell-cell communication, signal transduction, transport of genetic materials and modulation of immune response. Numerous studies indicate that exosomes play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, and exosomes from specific cell types and conditions display multiple functions such as exerting positive effects on regeneration in many tissues. It is widely accepted that the therapeutic potential of stem cells may be mediated largely by the paracrine factors; harnessing the paracrine effects of stem and progenitor cells without affecting the living, replicating and potentially pluripotent cell populations is an advantage in terms of safety and complexity.
In past decades, transplanted stem cells were believed to heal damaged tissue by directly differentiating into cells at the damaged site. However, recent evidence has attributed the beneficial effects of stem cell transplantation not to their direct differentiation abilities, but rather their ability to secrete bioactive molecules which provide a regenerative microenvironment for various injured tissues to limit the area of damage and mount a self-regulated regenerative response. Exosomes are crucial mediators of cell-to-cell communication which is involved in normal physiological processes and, additionally, play a role in the development and progression of diseases. Therefore, current studies are increasingly focusing on the role of exosomes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation and their therapeutic potential.
What role do exosomes play in immune response? Exosomes are considered carriers of immune responses. The promotion or suppression of immune responses depends on the characteristics of the parent cell. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs) and B lymphocytes, secrete exosomes that carry immunostimulatory molecules.
Why use exosomes? MSCs are known to play a vital role in regeneration of injured tissue by homing in on injured or diseased cells and secreting bioactive factors. Bioactive factors secreted by MSCs stimulate resident stem cells that then construct new tissue. Exosomes have the potential to recapitulate this therapeutic function while avoiding issues associated with using whole stem cells.
Within regenerative medicine, exosome therapy is the latest treatment that is impressing doctors; many argue that exosomes may be more important than stem cells due to their unique ability to function as a "messenger" within the body, transferring information from cell to cell. Enhancing stem cell therapy with added exosomes is considered a superior and optimal therapy.
Due to their small size, exosomes are better able to avoid entrapment in filter organs and cross biological barriers than whole cells.
Due to their acellular nature, there is lower risk of adverse side effects such as neoplastic transformation or eliciting an immune response.
Exosomes also have a unique therapeutic application because they can be used topically on the skin, injected with an IV or inhaled so they get into the lungs which is exceptionally beneficial for respiratory diseases such as COPD, as well as organ and joint regeneration.
Is Exosome Therapy safe and where is it obtained? MSC-derived exosomes can be steadily isolated from the MSC-conditioned medium. They are as effective as direct MSC transplantation and their beneficial therapeutic effects have been demonstrated in various models, including those for cardiovascular disease, acute kidney injury, liver injury, lung injury and cutaneous wound healing.
Exosomes are processed from healthy, carefully screened mothers at the time of their scheduled Cesarean section. Donors are prescreened and undergo comprehensive testing, including serological testing for communicable diseases HBsAg; HBcAb; HCV; HIV I/II Ab; HIV NAT. (Infectious disease testing is performed at a certified laboratory in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) and 42 CFR Part 493.)
Orthomolecular Nutrition and Wellness Center is located at 9225 Ulmerton Rd., Ste. 312, Largo. For more information and appointments, call 727-518-9808 and/or visit OrthomolecularNutrition.net. See ad page 15.